最近


有些朋友


看完小帅b的文章之后


把小帅b的表情包都偷了


还在我的微信


疯狂发表情包嘚瑟


我就呵呵了



只能说一句


盘他


还有一些朋友


看完文章不点好看


还来催更


小帅b也只能说一句


继续盘他



ok


接下来我们要来玩一个新的库


这个库的名称叫做


Requests


这个库比我们上次说的 urllib 可是要牛逼一丢丢的


毕竟 Requests 是在 urllib 的基础上搞出来的


通过它我们可以用更少的代码


模拟浏览器操作


人生苦短


接下来就是


学习 python 的正确姿势



skr


对于不是 python 的内置库


我们需要安装一下


直接使用 pip 安装


pip install requests


安装完后就可以使用了


接下来就来感受一下 requests 吧


导入 requests 模块


import requests


一行代码 Get 请求


r = requests.get(https://api.github.com/events')


一行代码 Post 请求


r = requests.post(https://httpbin.org/post', data = {‘key’:‘value’})


其它乱七八糟的 Http 请求


>>> r = requests.put(https://httpbin.org/put', data = {‘key’:‘value’})

>>> r = requests.delete(https://httpbin.org/delete')

>>> r = requests.head(https://httpbin.org/get')

>>> r = requests.options(https://httpbin.org/get')


想要携带请求参数是吧?


>>> payload = {‘key1’: ‘value1’, ‘key2’: ‘value2’}

>>> r = requests.get(https://httpbin.org/get', params=payload)


假装自己是浏览器


>>> url = https://api.github.com/some/endpoint'

>>> headers = {‘user-agent’: ‘my-app/0.0.1’}

>>> r = requests.get(url, headers=headers)


获取服务器响应文本内容


>>> import requests

>>> r = requests.get(https://api.github.com/events')

>>> r.text

u’[{“repository”:{“open_issues”:0,”url”:”https://github.com/...
>>> r.encoding

‘utf-8’


获取字节响应内容


>>> r.content

b’[{“repository”:{“open_issues”:0,”url”:”https://github.com/...


获取响应码


>>> r = requests.get(https://httpbin.org/get')

>>> r.status_code

200


获取响应头


>>> r.headers

{
‘content-encoding’: ‘gzip’,

‘transfer-encoding’: ‘chunked’,

‘connection’: ‘close’,

‘server’: ‘nginx/1.0.4’,

‘x-runtime’: ‘148ms’,

‘etag’: ‘“e1ca502697e5c9317743dc078f67693f”‘,

‘content-type’: ‘application/json’

}


获取 Json 响应内容


>>> import requests

>>> r = requests.get(https://api.github.com/events')

>>> r.json()

[{u’repository’: {u’open_issues’: 0, u’url’: ‘https://github.com/...


获取 socket 流响应内容


>>> r = requests.get(https://api.github.com/events', stream=True)

>>> r.raw

<urllib3.response.HTTPResponse object at 0x101194810>

>>> r.raw.read(10)

‘\x1f\x8b\x08\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x03’


Post请求


当你想要一个键里面添加多个值的时候


>>> payload_tuples = [(‘key1’, ‘value1’), (‘key1’, ‘value2’)]

>>> r1 = requests.post(https://httpbin.org/post', data=payload_tuples)

>>> payload_dict = {‘key1’: [‘value1’, ‘value2’]}

>>> r2 = requests.post(https://httpbin.org/post', data=payload_dict)

>>> print(r1.text)

{ “form”: { “key1”: [ “value1”, “value2” ] },}

>>> r1.text == r2.text

True


请求的时候用 json 作为参数


>>> url = https://api.github.com/some/endpoint'

>>> payload = {‘some’: ‘data’}

>>> r = requests.post(url, json=payload)


想上传文件?


>>> url = https://httpbin.org/post'

>>> files = {‘file’: open(‘report.xls’, ‘rb’)}

>>> r = requests.post(url, files=files)

>>> r.text

{ “files”: { “file”: “<censored…binary…data>” },}


获取 cookie 信息


>>> url = http://example.com/some/cookie/setting/url'

>>> r = requests.get(url)

>>> r.cookies[‘example_cookie_name’]

‘example_cookie_value’


发送 cookie 信息


>>> url = https://httpbin.org/cookies'

>>> cookies = dict(cookies_are=‘working’)

>>> r = requests.get(url, cookies=cookies)

>>> r.text

‘{“cookies”: {“cookies_are”: “working”}}’


设置超时


>>> requests.get(https://github.com/', timeout=0.001)

Traceback (most recent call last):
File “<stdin>”, line 1, in <module>requests.exceptions.Timeout: HTTPConnectionPool(host=’github.com’, port=80): Request timed out. (timeout=0.001)



除了牛逼


还能说什么呢??



扫一扫

学习 Python 没烦恼



近期文章


python爬虫入门01:教你在Chrome浏览器轻松抓包


python爬虫入门02:教你通过Fiddler进行手机抓包


python爬虫03:那个Urllib的库让我们假装是浏览器





好看的人

会有好运发生